Calculating Cap Rate, ROI

Cap Rates Uncovered: A Key to Profitable Real Estate Investing

“Cap Rate,” or Capitalization Rate, is a metric used in real estate to assess the profitability and potential return of an investment property. It is usually expressed as a percentage.

Imagine you’re considering buying an apartment building as an investment. The Cap Rate helps you understand how good of an investment it might be. It’s calculated by taking the building’s net operating income (what you earn from it, minus expenses like maintenance and taxes) and dividing that by the purchase price of the building.

Calculating Cap Rate

Here’s a simple example:

Suppose you’re looking at a small apartment building that you can buy for $1,000,000.
Let’s say, after all your costs (like repairs, taxes, and management fees), you expect to earn $50,000 a year from renting out the apartments. Please note that this calculation does not include the mortgage payment.
To find the Cap Rate, you’d do this calculation:

In our case, it’s:

So, the Cap Rate for this building is 5%. This number helps you compare this investment to other options. A higher Cap Rate usually suggests a higher potential return, but also might come with higher risk. For example, a building in a less desirable area might have a higher Cap Rate because it’s cheaper to buy, but it might be harder to find tenants. On the other hand, a building in a popular area might have a lower Cap Rate because it’s expensive, but you might expect steady rental income due to high demand.

Relationship between Cap Rate and Property Value

The relationship between Cap Rate and property value can be easily understood through its formula. Essentially, property value and Cap Rate are inversely proportional to each other. This means when the Cap Rate for a neighborhood or area is high, the property values tend to be lower. Conversely, when Cap Rates are low, it usually indicates that property values are higher. For example, properties in Central California might have higher Cap Rates compared to properties in Los Angeles or the San Francisco Bay Area. The higher Cap Rates in Central California suggest more affordable property prices there, while the lower Cap Rates in Los Angeles and the Bay Area reflect higher property values in these regions.

Important Function of Cap Rate

When evaluating commercial properties or multifamily buildings, direct price comparisons using the comparable sales method, commonly applied to single-family homes, can be challenging. This difficulty arises because each building can be distinctly different. Take, for instance, two buildings: one might comprise 5 two-bedroom, one-bathroom units and 5 one-bedroom, one-bathroom units, while the other could consist entirely of 10 two-bedroom, one-bathroom units. Additionally, there can be substantial differences in their square footage, the level and quality of upgrades, and other features. These variations make it hard to compare them directly based on price alone. Consequently, using the potential rate of return as a metric for comparison becomes a much more effective and accurate approach in these scenarios.

How does Cap Rate Move Up or Down?

Real estate brokers closely monitor market data, including the Net Operating Incomes (NOI) of properties that are being sold, along with their sale prices. Using this information and the Cap Rate formula, brokers determine the current ‘going’ Cap Rate in the market. This helps them advise sellers on setting appropriate selling prices for their properties.

The movement of Cap Rates up or down is influenced by the willingness of buyers and sellers to deviate from current market trends. If buyers are prepared to pay more than the broker’s recommended price for a property, then the Cap Rate decreases. This is because the sale price (denominator in the Cap Rate formula) is higher for the same NOI, leading to a lower Cap Rate. Conversely, if buyers are reluctant to meet the asking price, forcing the seller to lower the price, then the Cap Rate increases. A lower sale price for the same NOI results in a higher Cap Rate. In essence, the Cap Rate fluctuates based on these changing dynamics between buyer offers and seller expectations in the market.


In summary, Cap Rates are an indispensable tool in real estate investment, providing insights into property values and potential returns, particularly for commercial and multifamily properties. They showcase an inverse relationship with property prices and are sensitive to market trends and the interplay between buyers’ and sellers’ behaviors. However, it’s crucial to note that Cap Rates should not be used as the sole metric for evaluating an investment. Successful real estate investing demands a comprehensive analysis that includes, but is not limited to, Cap Rates. This involves considering market conditions, property specifics, and your personal investment objectives. By understanding and appropriately using Cap Rates in conjunction with other factors, you can navigate the complexities of the real estate market and make more informed, balanced investment decisions.

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